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Digital architecture, Bartlett, 2020


LITH is composed of a user owned system, that manages a spatial-sharing platform and a localized automated fdm printing farm, funded by the local council, Utilized to generate a kit-of-part of printed form-works, which can be assembled and cast to produce an intentional community Where spaces and utilities which are being underutilized, Can be shared as studios with the local artistic community.

LITH (60.6 mb)

To view the entire LITH research and design download the pdf from the link above.
Housing is a fundamental human right. Ownership is not. While the economic middle class is being forced out of city centers due to sky-rocketing housing prices, increasingly housing is viewed by the rich as a commodity to invest in, while occupying multi-room private castles . This is obviously problematic and aggravating the housing crisis. To avert this we propose an occupation only policy, where housing can only be owned if all designated living areas are being occupied by the owner. For those who find unable to own housing we propose the universal housing system.Design algorithm can automate this process for construction of the new housing, where space is designated customized to users occupancy.
The way we the architectural profession engages with space making is being continuously challenged due to the crisis at multiple fronts at those of labour, housing shortage and increasing automation.The idea of abode has been commodified and made inaccessible to a large part of the society. It is undeniable that right to home is one of the most basic of human needs. We are then forced to engage with questions of providing quality safe habitable spaces for those who increasingly find themselves unable to sustain in the current neo-liberal paradigm.
Diverging from a deterministic view of architecture, We concede that housing and gentrification are complex issues that require citizens to hold policy makers accountable. With this position we propose data enabled policy changes along with a design proposal. The costs for spaces are split between users and the community, as the initial investment towards the printing farm creates socio-cultural values and help diversify the borough.
Design algorithm can automate this process for construction of the new housing, where space is designated customized to users occupancy.We propose a citizen-driven profit-agnostic framework, enabling long-term space sharing and contracts with diminishing rent-sized payment allowing slow-ownership of the occupied space.
LITH is an amalgamation of multiple structures that work in conjunction. It includes platforms for generation of space, management of space sharing and helping the construction. It also includes automated systems of construction and automated systems for design of spaces.

The robot arm is a permanent fixture for the LITH housing community, it provides firstly the initial construction factory for both form-works and reinforcement and then later functions as a digital artisanal and artistic medium of production of large-scale 3d printed goods.
LITH, utilizes the automated construction system, to print, assemble and cast.This process simplifies the current paradigm for creating form-works, as the production of the end design is linked with the method of production and design of parts.Due to the automated nature of production this process results in massive cost and time saving, accompanied by reduction of human labor required to produce traditional formworks.
During the process of designing form-works, we realized that the simplest and cleanest de-molding procedure occurs when the mold around a single object is split along its seams into 8 parts.

Its bracket and the nozzle are made of aluminum while the heartbreak and gears are stainless steel. Arduino connects the computer with the pins 2 and 3 of the robot to synchronize the extruder motor with the robot’s moves. The bracket is designed for ABB and Kuka robots.The extruder utilizes PETG as its primary printing material.
The printed form-work can be assembled to form a light-weight hollow partition that can be disassembled and reassembled to reconfigure spaces.

The printed form-works are self-supporting and require no additional scaffolding, reducing the production chain of traditional casting methods
LITH utilizes discrete reinforcement bars, which are bent in three distinct orientations and then weld/fastened together to generate a network with higher density rebars existing where additional structure is required.  Part of the structure extends out of the mold such that it could be fastened to the next mold. The ends are secured using 3D printed caps. Which can be finished through castin



Interactive design tool, Game design, bartlett 2020


An atmospheric application exploring the design space through the aggregation of two interdependent parts.

DOWNLOAD (19.7 mb)

To experience the application you may download it from the link above.

Aguada Central Prison

architecture + planning, Usap, 2017

Walls of Confinement

Architecture is primarily concerned with design of habitable spaces, these spaces can vary from built to open, from solitary rooms to large cities. It is influenced by forces such as utility, structure and aesthetic. To some extent, it seems, buildings can be used to influence individuals. Society at large can be influenced through design of houses, institutions and ideal communities.

One is then drawn to contemplate about spaces which fundamentally contradict the idea of positive influence of architecture on behavior, as architects we must strive towards basic human standards for all; even those condemned to be unfit for society. In confined environments such as prisons, one often feels the environment is hostile and renders any possibilities of reform void. The plan and the symbolic forms with which buildings of incarceration are invested, are certainly of interest. The prison can be seen by society as an instrument of social policy and thus the ability to change its typology may impact social policies.

Confinement Cell

Confinement1. The action of confining or state of being confined. Synonyms: imprisonment, internment, incarceration, custody, captivity, detention, restraint, arrest, house arrest.
Each cell for an inmate is its residence for the period of his sentence. It becomes necessary for him to be able to connect to his new home. The cell is thus treated as a regular living space, a home, provided with both a space to have guests over and have communication within the inmate community and a private cove for the inmate to self reflect and rejuvenate The minimum habitable space for an incarcerated individual is measured.

In this volume, the contents of your life are caged. But every human action cannot be programmed or predicted, Our bodies always find ways to carve out space, to refocus our attention from the geometry to the lived experience, from the container to the contained.
from top left to right: Spatial configuration graph archetypes for institutions of confinement arranged in the order of increasing reformative spatial qualities:
1. Diluted tree   2.Open net   3. Closed net   4.the Hamlet
Spatial configuration of the prison represented as a justified graph. The graph represents depth of convex spaces and their interconnections. A shallow depth map with multiple interconnections imply that the design provides multiple opportunities for interactions among its users.
Confinement is, in the penal sense, a restriction of physical activity within a defined boundary. It has been, but should never have been a restriction on mental activity. The imposition of inhumane physical hardship within the prison as a ‘punishment’ in addition to the necessary confinement for public safety, is cruelty to the mind. Society has lost its ability to provide a tolerant and caring environment to such degree, that to create such an environment within prisons will be a cause of great outrage and resentment for most people, but nonetheless necessary. The following architectural design looks forward to adapt to the changing paradigm of prison design and aims for a prison that reforms its inmates and stands for a society that believes in hope, even for its worst.

It’s peculiar to say, but it’s nevertheless true: we punish people with architecture. The building is the method. We put criminals in a locked room, inside a locked structure, and we leave them there for a specified period of time. So, should architects remove themselves from prison design entirely? No, quite the contrary. Architects need to strive for better system for reform in penal architecture towards models of incarceration that incline towards reform and rehabilitation.



Urban Design

urban design, usap, 2016


Contemporary urbanism faces some of the hardest challenges of providing safe and habitable public and private spaces for it occupants. Urbanism struggles to cope up with the exponential increase in demographics, Analogous to an arthropod which grows too fast and too big for its exoskeleton. India has the second highest population in the world. A large part of this population resides in high-density urban centers which struggle to provide an amiable socio-cultural and economic environment with this ever-increasing population size. New Delhi, the capital is one of the densest urban centers of the world, it faces acute shortage of area as a resource and finds it increasingly hard to provide habitats for its inhabiting population. Designers of the past had tried to solve the issues by covering the land with built which in-turn had resulted in lack of green-open-public spaces.

Contemporary urban centers in India also face the issue of lack of identity, urban designers under the constant pressure of keeping up with the increase in its pragmatic requirements to develop infrastructure have failed to address issues about identity and being. The contemporary city is a generic multiplication, a fractal of the city block repeated indefinitely in all directions or at least it’s heading towards that in the foreseeable future if it remains unredeemed.

The design vision was to re-imagine district center at Mayur Vihar as an active urban-scape with a vision to develop a walkable neighborhood with legible nodes, to make the streets safer and make building forms that are appropriate and aesthetically appealing. To provide for abundant active open plazas within each neighborhood block such that each neighborhood has sufficient open spaces.
The project fills in the void for the district center for Mayur Vihar, located in east Delhi, at the edge of the city. Lying at the transitional space between two cities of Delhi and Noida, it holds great economic and social value. It has the highest population density within the city and projects even higher growth rates. It is essential that issue relating to housing, and infrastructure be dealt with promptly. The road and street network is an extension of the neighborhood urban fabric in an attempt to stitch the two cities into a single connected fabric that promotes intermingling and blurs the borders of the city. The key features of the district center are the two water canals which have been pulled inwards towards the center forming the backbone and identity of the space, the proposed design allows for the reclamation of these waterways as public spaces. The waterways are surrounded by either green plazas, cultural activities or commercial and retail.
The following project proposes a mixed-used functional typology with most businesses and commercial activities being located near the streets and the housing elevated towards the sky into high-rise residential towers. The urban blocks are loosely based on the idea of inner courtyards, where the inner courtyards function as plazas providing green public spaces to an otherwise high-density neighborhood. The skyline has evolved as a result of an interpretation of two contemporary urban design principles, of Transit-oriented development and Ecology oriented development as waves and the following attempts at reconciliation of these waves.



Architectural University

architecture + planning, Usap, 2015

Second skin - Architecture as a landscape sculpture

Architecture needs to be rooted in its physical and social context for its potential to be realized fully. Architecture renders an erstwhile landscape shrouded in mist to be oriented by introducing new structures, the following project was an exploration of architecture’s ability to orient as an extension of the landscape. As a composition it is composed of superimposed horizontal membranes analogous to the epidermis. The design yearns to be a prosthetic to the steep topography, a second skin, a replication of the earth below which has been eroded away to give way to habitable spaces. A clone of the surface floats above the spaces, the surface shattered to let light slip through the cracks to enlighten the spaces within.An architecture school should be a place to discover, inspire and debate ideas.
The campus is provided with abundant spaces for interactions. Transitional spaces function both as spaces for exhibition and as a threshold between two spaces. These spaces for exhibition of work and design-ideas lend otherwise monotonous spaces a character of wonder and allows design to be critiqued publicly.

The planning revolves around the central axis from the point of entry. The functions are arranged in the order of increasing privacy with administrative and public functions such as the auditorium, the library and the reception located closest to the entry and the spine. The studios and workshops are located at the other side of topography, the two sides have been connected with a multi-level bridge, a wedge that functions as a place to exhibit the work while also connecting the two sides of the site.




architecture , Usap, 2015

embankment pavilion

The pavilion includes multiple functions but its primary function is to serve as an extension of the land into the river. The Ghat is understood as the transitory space between the clean and the unclean, the pure and the impure, the pious and the sacrilegious.

The triangulated design is inspired from the movement of a solid-body through a fluid membrane. The central structure  conceptualized as the body and the steps envisioned as the waves in its wake caused by its movement through an imaginary space. The spaces beside the main structure serves as changing rooms and a canteen for those who come to take a dip in the cool waters of river Yamuna.The central axis forms the deck which can be used for public gatherings .The spaces below are accessible from either side of the deck and can be used to host events. The space is protected via extended high walls on either side. The space is submerged during monsoon and one can experience the light play on the interior space as it passes through flowing water.




architecture , Usap, 2015


A digital experimentation of discrete assembly of a primitive megalithic structure.




architecture , Usap, 2013


A social housing project, for three hundred and fifty families at Narela, New Delhi. The design explores how architecture can impact social structure and instil within the users a sense of equality and plurality. It builds upon a corridor system with a void stack system that is arranged around a winding corridor which ensures cohesion and connectivity and forms sub-communities at each level. it also provides view to the central open space ensuring safety and  aesthetical  appreciation of the space. Split levels increase the efficiency of the staircase in a corridor system without compromising its functionality and connectivity.




conceptual architecture, 2017

Power and Surveillance

The lighthouse was conceived as a monument to the right to freedom of privacy and against institutional surveillance.If the Panopticon stands for the power symbol and power struggle between the observer and the observed, the concept of the anti-Panopticon, an institutional construct that would stand against psychological oppression would stand for power stabilization and right to privacy for the ones being observed.


conceptual architecture, 2016

Literature reservoir

The library on the cliff edge is a conceptual town library, embodying the physical experience of reading.

The Final Expedition// honourable mention

conceptual architecture, 2018

24Hr competition

The extent of human vanity is best expressed in climbing the world’s highest peak to gloat over man’s ability to overcome natural obstacles.And at what cost?Tonnes of garbage lies adjacent to frozen corpses, and with no one to discard either. Sherpas risk their lives retrieving the waste, unpaid for their efforts. Any further intervention facilitating human contact would be mere fuel to an already escalating problem, and the solution must be a decisive one. To this end, all future expeditions to the summit have been stopped to begin the process of ecological restoration. The only activity the Everest would now see is the mechanized effort of C.A.M.P 01 and its kin, an army of garbage collecting automatons that will gradually rid the mountain of any sign of human intervention, oxygen bottles to tents. The automatons are localized to a base camp where they are docked, and the garbage is stored only to be disposed of using appropriate methods eventually. Each automaton will be equipped with a video camera that transmits a live worldwide feed of garbage collection- a slow, laborious, incessant process that is in sharp contrast to instantaneity of littering- to show the world the steady rejuvenation of the local ecology. In the coming years as the task gets complete, C.A.M.P 01 and it’s pod would be programmed to leave the site forever- to leave the Mount Everest in a condition as though untouched by human civilization, unblemished and pristine, with the mountain itself acting as a memorial to environmental sanctity, and to the progress the human mind has made in coexisting with its surroundings.


3rd prize winner, architecture , MEC, 2021

CLT competition

Increasingly Urbanized fabric of Indian Cities face challenges of providing rapid affordable housing solution for its growing population. We propose 001+1bits a kit of parts of CLT modules which can be assembled to produce various housing units by exploiting the structural functionality of CLT. A universal mass-producible CLT based assembly system allows for sustainable growth of cities which can respond to the specific requirements of accommodation based on climatic and environmental constraints. Rapid assembly and aggregation-based system are possible entirely due to the weight to strength ratio of CLT. The 001+1 bits is a design and construction system which utilizes self-similar CLT panels of varying scales capable of generating complex structure through relatively simple assemblage. The system is analogous to a set of Legos, where each panel share geometric constraints and joint conditions.
The system consists of 4 panels, scaled at ratio of 1,2,4 and 8, this scale relationship between modules enables them to aggregate to form the next in the series.  This enables personalization of each housing unit according to the individual conditions and space requirements of its occupants. Furthermore in a tower condition, where the units can be stacked around a central core, the system allows for future addition of units. 001+1Bits can respond to the varying social and climatological contexts of India. We intend to show the varied possibilities of the system by showcasing 4 aggregations as examples based in 4 distinct conditions within in the Indian landscape, The proposals are a low-rise housing in South Delhi, A high-rise housing tower in Mumbai(Maharashtra), a vernacular inspired house in Kochi(Kerela) and hill-houses in Shimla(Himachal Pradesh).
The housing units can be stacked and removed depending upon the requirements of the occupants. Here the structure is treated as an organism which can respond to its contextual requirements. The housing stack can grow vertically around a central CLT core, where newer housing units can be added as the need for space grows.
This system of varied Lego-like modules allows the generation of various architectural elements of a housing unit such as walls, floors, windows and even furniture.Since the panels are similar their joint conditions can be predetermined which allowed us to design a reversible, non-permanent joint. 001+1Bits utilizes a steel plate bolted connection along with a simple tongue and groove joint to secure the assembly. Building upon the work of metabolism, The aggregated unit can be expanded or shrunk, through addition or removal of the CLT modules due to the reversible bolted joint.



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